Junaid Rana talks about a concept of moral panic. She connects it to the Islamic peril which formed a racial category of “dangerous Muslims”.  These relations appeared as the aftermath of 9/11 resulted in violence.  She argues the moral panic is like a racial panic, similar to the fear through out the Pearl Harbor attacks, (52) and how” the role of the racial panic is to intensify the categories of racialization within the racial formation.”  Terror, fear, panic and peril are the main terms flowing around. Terror is simply about manufacturing fear. (55).  And according to Eqhal Ahmad, which I found interesting was how he defines terrorism to be “both state and the law are potential instruments of terror, an argument that runs counter to postulations of terrorism as violence against the state.”


Sunaina Maira talks about new meanings for South Asian immigrant youth in terms of citizenship and racialization. She argues that “young muslim immigrants’ understandings of citizenship shed light on the ways in which nationalism in the U.S is defined in relation to transnationalism and globalization, multiculturalism and polyculturalism, and increasingly overtly, to the links between domestiic and foreign policy that underlie U.S imperial power” (336). She based this paper on her study in fall 2001 which focused on Indian, Pakistani, etc. students in Cambridge. She said Cambridge is a good location for the research because it is a place to be politically liberal and the school has a diverse group of students, the largest population in the school to be Muslim. (337). And she goes on to talk about cultural citizenship which becomes important after legal citizenship to become not enough for protection under the law with War on Terror going on.  Flexible citizenship, she defines as a concept of the migrants’usage of transnational links to provide political or material resources not available to them. (339). I found it interesting when she tells us that after 9/11 happened, citizenship seemed to be less important to immigrants within Muslims and South Asians/Arabs comparing to the shield against abuses of civil rights. (340).


Nadine C. Naber argues that the U.S government is also responsible for the purse of imperialist policies, which resulted the inspiration and planning of the attacks on 9/11.  She talks about coalition building in Asian American politics. The separation between categories of Arab, Middle Eastern and Muslim has brought to question. Coalition has centralized racial justice as a basis against impact of war on terror. What I found interesting was, “the U.S state and media have reproduced the historical contradictions of U.S racial formations that  fuel hate violence, while at the same time promoting tolerance and diversity.”  (222).