1st Source: http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/yellow_promise_yellow_peril/perils.html, Reading 1: Lee, Erika. 2007. “The ‘Yellow Peril’ and Asian Exclusion in the Americas.” Pacific Historical 76 (4): 537-562.

MIT Visualizing Cultures
For “The Yellow Peril’ and Asian Exclusion in the Americas” by Erika Lee, I chose this picture because it makes alot of her argument come to life. I chose this picture because it depicts an Asian American who destroys the world after invading the world, now collectively the Asian Empire, but at the same time, the Asian American in the picture ultimately destroys what it tried to set out to do. This shows that Asian Americans are dangerous, and a threat to the Western World, the White Population, and above all, the human population. This picture tries to depict how Asian Americans are dangerous, and will eventually destroy itself from the “excess” stereotype. The picture is almost what most White Populations prophecize, that Asian Americans are not worth bringing into the United States as evidenced in American Legislation. This picture describes the “hemispheric Orientalism” Lee describes. Lee wrote ” “I argue that these national (exclusionary) policies were not separate phenomena but rather resulted from a transnational anti-Asian racism – what I have called ‘hemispheric Orientalism’ – that flourished and moved across national bondaries” (538). The picture shows that it was not the United States that discriminated Asian Americans but Latin America, Canada, the Carribean, Hawaii, and Mexico. This picture tries to show peoples’ fear of an “Asian Invasion.” Lee continues to write about the transnational networks that homeland citizens around the world seemed to discriminate against: “Retaining ties to thier homelands and forming networks across national borders, these Asians were like many migrants who practiced transnational migration adn formed diasporic communities” (538). Asian Americans were virtually not welcome anywhere in these networks, even when the United States would be the final destination.


2nd Source:http://www.vintagefineartprints.com/print-18502-1869353/japanese-yellow-peril-paranoid-comment-japans-expansionism-other/ , Reading 2: Ono, Kent A. and Vincent N. Pham. 2009. “The Persistence of Yellow Peril Discourse.” In Asian Americans and the Media. Cambridge, UK and Malden, MA: Polity Press, 25-44.

Buy The Japanese

In this picture, this shows what the White Populations thought of Japanese immigration. This  pictures shows the fear of White Populations and populations around the world about the expansion Japanese and other Asian populations have evoked. Though the stereotypes are contested, the picture shows how frightening the expansion could be in the eyes of who believe their legitimacy is established i.e., non-immigrants, those that are native. This pictures shows the threat that non-immigrants may have faced, the picture is frightening enough but the author wants to show that these fears may be a misperception and ends by writing: “Our approach to studying yellow peril discourse in this chapter has been to take an Asian American studies perspective on the subject; to draw attention to the historical, social, political, and legal conditions that relate to its existence: to emphasize the multimedia dimension of the emergence of yellow peril: and to suggest the ability ultimately to change media representations through knowledge, study, and critical examinations of such representations” (44). I think this is the best approach, although this is an approach that will take time as Asian Americans have yet to gain a presence in the media. Even then, Asian Americans are not hired for the roles that would exactly be considered socially acceptable, instead these roles exacerbate Asian American or Asian immigrants in a light that is not favorable, just as their presence has been in much of United States history during the late 1800s, and early 1900’s. In connection to the first text by Lee, Ono and Pham also agree on the same tangent that: “Furthermore, these examples illustrate that yellow peril is a media discourse that refers abstractly to the threat of Asian takeover and therefore does not allow for distinctions among groups” (44). Lee, Ono, and Pham all argue for a reconstruction of Asian identity in media, and that may be possible in the near future with growing acceptance.